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When presenting scientific work, try to cover the following information so that the reader can assess the contribution, potential impact, and relevance of your work:


  • Problem: What problem are you trying to address?
  • Research questions: What research questions are you trying to answer? (to make novelty/originality clear)
  • Idea: What is your idea of addressing the problem? (is often broader than the contribution)
  • Contributions: Which contributions to the research area are you making with that idea?
  • Benefits: What are the benefits of your contributions?
  • Evaluation: How do you plan to evaluate your envisioned benefits? (Validation)

Then, try to cover (part of) the claimed benefit in the evaluation. Always make the context clear, make the claimed benefit in that context clear, and also the roles of those who can profit.

  • Not all benefits have to be validated in a dissertation/thesis. But be clear about what you validate and what is subject to future work (and then describe how it could be validated). But in that case, also mention which benefits you validate (e.g., as sub-benefits in a hierarchy of benefits).
  • Additionally, research questions to increase understanding may not have to be validated in the classic sense.

PrICoBE is an extension of the PIBA scheme, a detailed account of its origin is available internally [1].


Begin by clearly defining the problem you aim to address. State the problem in a way that makes its significance and relevance evident. Explain why this problem is worth investigating. Provide background information and context.

  • The problem should be stated so that it is clear why this is problematic.
  • Describe the problem's current state.
  • Highlight any existing challenges or limitations.
  • Explain the implications of not addressing the problem.

Research Questions

Enumerate the specific research questions that your work seeks to answer. These questions should be formulated to emphasize the novelty and originality of your research.

  • Make clear how these questions contribute to advancing the research area.
  • Mention gaps in existing research that your questions aim to fill.


Present your idea for solving or addressing the identified problem. The idea is often broader in scope than the specific contributions of your research project.

  • Explain the conceptual framework or approach you plan to use.
  • Discuss how your idea aligns with the problem and research questions.
  • Provide context for the development of your idea.


Detail the contributions your research will make to the broader field. These contributions should be linked to the idea and emphasize the innovative aspects of your work.

  • Specify the new knowledge, methods, or insights your research will generate.
  • Describe how your contributions build on existing work and extend it.
  • Highlight the originality and significance of your contributions.


Explain the benefits that will result from your contributions. This step connects your research to its broader impact and potential applications.

  • Discuss the practical, theoretical, or societal benefits of your work.
  • Identify the various stakeholders who stand to gain from your contributions.
  • Clearly articulate how your research addresses (real-world) problems.


Outline your plan for evaluating the envisioned benefits. This step ensures that your claims are substantiated and demonstrates your commitment to rigor.

  • Specify the metrics, experiments, or methodologies you will use for validation.
  • Discuss the criteria for success and the expected outcomes.
  • Explain the methodology for conducting the evaluation.